Cefovecin

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Cefovecin is een beta-lactam antibiotica behorende tot de 3de generatie cefalosporines. Zoals alle cefalosporines werkt het bactericide door te interfereren met de synthese van bacteriële celwand.[1]

Cefovecin verschilt van de andere cefalosporines door haar grote plasmaproteïnebinding en haar lange eliminatiehalfwaardetijd met lange werkingsduur bij de hond en de kat. De uitscheiding gebeurt voornamelijk als onveranderde molecule met de urine.[2]

Spectrum

Indicaties

Kat[1]

  • huidinfecties van huid en zachte weefsels en wondes door gevoelige Pasteurella multocida, Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Prevotella oralis, β-hemolytische Streptococci en Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
  • urineweginfecties geassocieerd met gevoelige E. coli

Hond[1]

  • infecties van huid en zachte weefsels, inclusief pyoderma, wondes en abcessen door gevoelige Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, β-hemolytische Streptococci, Escherichia coli en Pasteurella multocida
  • urineweginfecties geassocieerd met gevoelige E. coli en Proteus spp.
  • ondersteuning van mechanische of chirurgische periodontale therapie in de behandeling van ernstige infecties van gingiva, periodontale weefsels geassocieerd met gevoelige Porphyromonas spp. en Prevotella spp.

Posologie

Kat[2]

(lft >8w)

  • huid, weke delen infecties: 8 mg/kg SC (kan tot 3x herhaald worden met 14d interval)
  • urineweginfecties: 8 mg/kg SC

Hond[2]

(lft >8w)

  • huid, weke delen infecties: 8 mg/kg SC (kan 1x herhaald worden met 14d interval)
  • urineweginfecties: 8 mg/kg SC
  • tandvlees-, periodontale infecties: 8 mg/kg SC

Konijn

  • 8 mg/kg SC

Cefovecin is bruikbaar bij konijnen maar de plasma halfwaardetijd is aanzienlijk korter in vergelijking met hond en kat. Er is met andere woorden geen sprake van depoteigenschappen. [3]

Referenties

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 "EMA Summary of product characteristics". http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/veterinary/000098/WC500062067.pdf.  
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 "EMA registratie". http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/veterinary/medicines/000098/vet_med_000108.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001fa1c.  
  3. PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEFOVECIN IN RABBITS
    JA Gilabert, JM Ros-Rodríguez, C Rojo-Solís, M Pérez-Nogués, MT Encinas
     
    Dpto. de Toxicología y Farmacología. Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
     
    Some of the most important infectious processes in rabbits are primary treated with ß-lactamic drugs, but the potential risk of diarrhea and enteritis outbreak limits its therapeutic use. Very few drugs are licensed for use in this species as an alternative to ß-lactamics, leading to extra-label use of drug approved for other species. In this scenario, cefovecin (a third generation cephalosporin developed by Pfizer Animal Health as an aqueous solutionfor subcutaneous administration in dogs and cats) could be a possible candidate to solve the rabbit chemotherapy problem. Activity in vitro for the drug against all major bacterial pathogens in pets has been demonstrated, and its pharmacokinetic behavior has been characterized by a long elimination half-life and an extended activity in transudate making it suitable for a 14-days dosing (8 mg/kg) interval treatments. In the present work, a two-phase cross-over study was performed to know the kinetic behavior of cefovecin in rabbits.
    
    Ten clinically healthy White New Zealand rabbits were randomly distributed in two experimental groups; animals received 8 mg/kg body weight of cefovecin (Convenia®) by intravenous or by subcutaneous injection. Serial blood samples (0.5 ml) were collected into lithium heparin tubes from the right marginal ear vein. Plasma concentrations of cefovecin were measured using a validated HPLC method and data were fitted to non-compartmental models to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters. '''The calculated plasma half-life for cefovecin was about 1 h after intravenous and 3.5 h after subcutaneous administrations; a rapid clearance (4.33 ml/min/kg) and a low distribution volume (0.257 l/kg) characterize the kinetic behavior of the drug.''' The maximum mean plasma concentration (26.89 µg/ml) after subcutaneous administration was attained by 30 min, and bioavailability resulted in 91.2%. The plasma clearance of cefovecin (4.33 ml/min/kg) is according to a physiological glomerular filtration rate (4 ml/min/kg), suggesting that active re-absorption in the renal tubules or other mechanisms are not implicated in the elimination of the drug. The pharmacokinetic profile observed for cefovecin in rabbits show large dissimilarities compared to those previously published for dogs and cats and for hens and green iguanas. '''Plasma half-lives for pets resulted considerably longer than in rabbits, possibly due to a much slower clearance reported for these species (0.35 for dogs and 0.76 ml/h/kg for cats) vs 260 ml/h/kg in the present study. Nevertheless, the half-lives for rabbits resulted longer than those reported in hens (0.87 h) and similar to those published in iguanas (3.9 h).'''  
     
     The authors would like to acknowledge PFIZER SALUD ANIMAL for their support
    

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